What are the laws of Mendel in terms of Heredity? Pls explain them in detail with examples
Mendel’s laws of inheritance:
1. Law of segregation-During gamete formation, the alleles for each gene segregate from each other so that each gamete carries only one allele for each gene.
2. Law of independent assortment-Genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes.
3. Law of dominance-Some alleles are dominant while others are recessive; an organism with at least one dominant allele will display the effect of the dominant allele.
#Law of Segregation of genes (the “First Law”)-
The Law of Segregation states that every individual organism contains two alleles for each trait, and that these alleles segregate (separate) during meiosis such that each gamete contains only one of the alleles. An offspring thus receives a pair of alleles for a trait by inheriting homologous chromosomes from the parent organisms: one allele for each trait from each parent.
#Law of Independent Assortment (the “Second Law”)-
The Law of Independent Assortment states that alleles for separate traits are passed independently of one another from parents to offspring. That is, the biological selection of an allele for one trait has nothing to do with the selection of an allele for any other trait. Mendel found support for this law in his dihybrid cross experimentS. In his monohybrid crosses, an idealized 3:1 ratio between dominant and recessive phenotypes resulted. In dihybrid crosses, however, he found a 9:3:3:1 ratios. This shows that each of the two alleles is inherited independently from the other, with a 3:1 phenotypic ratio for each.
#Law of Dominance (the “Third Law”)-
Mendel’s Law of Dominance states that recessive alleles will always be masked by dominant alleles. Therefore, a cross between a homozygous dominant and a homozygous recessive will always express the dominant phenotype, while still having a heterozygous genotype. Law of Dominance can be explained easily with the help of a mono hybrid cross experiment:- In a cross between two organisms pure for any pair (or pairs) of contrasting traits (characters), the character that appears in the F1 generation is called “dominant” and the one which is suppressed (not expressed) is called “recessive.” Each character is controlled by a pair of dissimilar factors. Only one of the characters expresses. The one which expresses in the F1 generation is called Dominant. It is important to note however, that the law of dominance is significant and true but is not universally applicable.