Key To remember the periodic table:
• These sentences contain letters denoting symbols of elements in the same order as they occur in a group or period.
• The symbols have been highlighted as bold letters in the sentence. However at the places where the complete symbol could not be included in the sentence, the first letters have been strung together and the second letter is shown in brackets. While reading the sentence you don’t have to read the letters in bracket. Just keep them in mind.
• At some places, phonetics have been used to denote a symbols such as ‘c’ could be replaced by ‘k’,’g’ with ‘j’, ‘I’ with ‘ea’ and ‘o’ with ‘u’, to make the sentence easier to remember.
Consisting of the first two groups, S-block elements have quite similar physical and chemical properties. The valence electrons of the elements in this block occupy s-orbitals.
Group 1 is known as alkali metals. It includes Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Ru), Caesium (Cs), and Francium (Fr).
Mnemonic for Group 1: LiNa Ki Ruby Cse Friendship hai.
Group 2 is known as alkaline earth metals. It includes Beryllium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Br), and Radium (Ra).
Mnemonic for Group 2: Beta Mange Car Scooter Baap rone se Raazi
Consisting of last six groups of the periodic table (Groups 13 to 18), P-block elements have their valence electrons occupying p-orbitals. This block consists of non-metals, semi-metals and poor metals.
Group 13 is known as Boron group or the group of Icosagens or Triels. It includes Boron (B), Aluminium (Al), Gallium (Ga), Indium (In), and Thallium (Tl).
Mnemonic for Group 13: B A G I T.
Group 14 is known as Carbon group or the group of Crystallogens, Tetragens or Tetrels. It includes Carbon (C), Silicon (Si), Germanium (Ge), Tin (Sn), and Lead (Pb).
Mnemonic for Group 14: Chemistry Sir Gives Sanki Problems.
Group 15 is known as the group of Pnictogens or Nitrogen group. It includes Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Arsenic (As), Antimony (Sb), and Bismuth (Bi).
Mnemonic for Group 15: Nahi Pasand Aise Sab Bhai.
Group 16 is known as the group of Chalcogens or Oxygen group. It includes Oxygen (O), Sulphur (S), Selenium (Se), Tellurium (Te), and the radioactive element Polonium (Po).
Mnemonic for Group 16: Oh! Style Se Tel Polish.
Group 17 is known as the group of Halogens. It includes Fluorine (F), Chlorine (Cl), Bromine (Br), Iodine (I), and Astatine (At).
Mnemonic for Group 17: Fir Call kar Bahaar AayI Aunty.
Group 18 is known as the group of Noble gases, excluding Helium. Normally, they are all odorless and colorless gases with very low chemical reactivity. The group includes Helium (He), Neon (Ne), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Xenon (Xe), and the radioactive Radon (Rn).
Mnemonic for Group 18: He Never Arrived; Kara Xero Run pe out.
D-Block elements consist of element groups 3 to 12 that correspond to the filling of the d-orbital subshell of the second outermost shell. Groups 3 to 11 are also known as transitional metals. Group 12 elements, which have its d subshell completely filled, are also known as post-transition elements.
D-block elements and F-block elements show considerable similarities across the periods too.
We can memorize these elements across the periods:
Period 4 elements are quite stable and many of them are very common in earth’s crust or core or both. D-block elements it includes are Scandium (Sc), Titanium (Ti), Vanadium (V), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn).
Mnemonic for Period 4: Science Ti(ea)cher Vineeta Criplani Man Fenko (FeCo) Ni Kyun(Cu) Zaan hai?
Read as: Science Teacher Vineeta Kriplani manfenko ni kyun zaan hai?
Period 5 elements are known to fill their 5s shell first, then 4d shells and then 5p shells, with rhodium being the exception. The elements of this period show many exceptions to Maledung rule. D-block elements it includes are Yttrium (Y), Zirconium (Zr), Niobium (Nb), Molybdenum (Mo), Technetium (Tc), Ruthenium (Ru), Rhodium (Rh), Pd (Palladium), Silver (Ag) and Cadmium (Cd).
Mnemonic for Period 5: Yeh Zarra Nabi bana Mohabaat mein T(c)eri, R(u)o R(h)o P(d)ukarogi Aaj(g) ise Chandni
Read as: Yeh Zarra Nabi bana Mohabbat mein Teri, Ro Ro Pukarogi Aaj ise Chandni
Period 6 includes the lanthanides or rare earths. Some of these transition metals are very valuable such as gold. D-block elements it includes are Lutetium (Lu), Hafnium (Hf), Tantalum (Ta), Tungsten (W), Rhenium (Re), Osmium (Os), Iridium (Ir), Platinum (Pt), Gold (Au) and Mercury (Hg).
Mnemonic for Period 6: L(u)a HafTa Warna Reh Us(Os) Irritating Popat ke saath Aur Hoj(g)a pagal.
Read as: La Hafta Warna Reh Us Irritating Popat ke saath Aur Hoja pagal.
Period 7 contains the radioactive elements only. It includes actinides which include the heaviest naturally occurring element Californium. All other elements are synthesized artificially. D-block elements
it includes are Actinium (Ac), Rutherfordium (Rf), Dubnium (Db), Seaborgium (Sg), Bohrium (Bh), Hassium (Hs), Meitnerium (Mt), and Darmstadtium (Ds).
Mnemonic for Period 7: Ak(c)ele R(f) D(b) S(g)harma ki B(h)ook mein H(s)ain Maths ke Difficult sawaal.
Read as: Akele R D Sharma ki Book mein Hain Maths ke Difficult sawaal.
F-block elements have their valence electrons in f-orbitals. They are also known as inner transition elements. They can be divided into Lanthanides (also known as rare earth elements) and Actinides that are highly reactive to halogens and chalcogens like lanthanides but they react more easily.
Lanthanides include Cerium (Ce), Praseodymium (Pr), Neodymium (Nd), Promethium (Pm), Samarium (Sm), Europium (Eu), Gadolinium (Gd), Terbium (Tb), Dysprosium (Dy), Holmium (Ho), Erbium (Er), Thulium (Tm), Ytterbium (Yb) and Lutetium (Lu).
We can learn all these in three parts:
1. Cerium (Ce), Praseodymium (Pr), Neodymium (Nd), Promethium (Pm), and Samarium (Sm)
Mnemonic for Lanthanides Part 1: Celina aur Priety Ne dande se Pammy aur Simmy ko mara.
2. Europium (Eu), Gadolinium (Gd), Terbium (Tb), Dysprosium (Dy), and Holmium (Ho)
Mnemonic for Lanthanides Part 2: Europe G(d)aya to TB(b) aur Di(y)arrohoea Ho gaya.
Read as: Europe Gaya to TB aur Diarrohoea Ho gaya.
3. Erbium (Er), Thulium (Tm), Ytterbium (Yb) and Lutetium (Lu)
Mnemonic for Lanthanides Part 3: E re, dekh Tamatar Yellow aur bLue hain.
Actinides include these f-block elements – Thorium (Th), Protactinium (Pa), Uranium (U), Neptunium (Np), Plutonium (Pu), Americium (Am), Curium (Cm), Berkelium (Bk), Fermium (Fm), Mendelevium (Md), Nobelium (No), and Lawrencium (Lr).
We can learn all these in three parts too:
1.Thorium (Th), Protactinium (Pa), Uranium (U), and Neptunium (Np)
Mnemonic for Actinides Part 1: Thode Pehelwan Unse Niptengey.
2.Plutonium (Pu), Americium (Am), Curium (Cm), Berkelium (Bk)
Mnemonic for Actinides Part 2: Purane Aam K(C)am Bikenge.
Read as: Purane Aam Kam Bikenge.
3. Fermium (Fm), Mendelevium (Md), Nobelium (No), and Lawrencium (Lr)
Mnemonic for Actinides Part 3: Itni Family aMdani mein No Ladki rajee.