how sub atomic particles exist
sir, in your video lecture you have said that cathode rays come out and these rays are called electrons and same for proton, comes out from the anode and these the particles comes out is called protons. But atoms cannot exist freely then how these particles sub-atom particles and comes out from anode and cathode exist freely. Explain.
Sub-atomic particles are obtained as follows:
The process by which anode rays are formed in a gas discharge anode ray tube is as follows: On applying high voltage to the tube, its electric field accelerates the small number of ions which are present in the gas. These ions strike with atoms of the gas, knocking electrons off and creates positive ions. These ions and electrons in turn strike more atoms which in turn creates more positive ions. The positive ions are all attracted to the negative cathode, and some pass through the holes in the cathode. These are the anode rays.
The process by which cathode rays are formed in a gas discharge anode ray tube is as follows: Modern vacuum tubes use thermionic emission, in which the cathode is made of a thin wire filament which is heated by a separate electric current passing through it. The high random heat motion of the filament removes electrons out of the surface of the filament, into the empty space of the tube. As electrons have negative charge, they are repelled by the negative cathode and attracted to the positive anode. They travel in straight lines through the empty tube. The voltage applied between the electrodes accelerates these low mass particles to high velocities.